Ex 4 Answers

This post refers to exercise 4.

a.
argument by induction – the claim is based on past experience

b.
argument from authority – the claim is based on the credibility of the textbook

c.
argument from authority – the argument is based on the authority of a religion institution and the law. Note, also that the law is only an authority of what is permissible, not what is moral. Some things may be illegal, yet moral (euthanasia is arguably a case in point); equally, some things may be legal but immoral – abortion perhaps, in states or countries where it is legal. The wider point is that the law itself can be judged according to moral standards.

d.
argument by induction – the claim is based on what happened in the past

e.
argument from authority – the claim is based on the authority of intelligence reports, which may or may not be credible. The key phrase to notice here is ‘according to…’.

f.
argument by induction – the claim is a prediction based on what has already happened

g.
argument from authority – the claim is based on the authority and credibility of the weather reports and the meteorologists

h.
argument by induction – the claim is a prediction based on what usually happens in this situation. Note that even if the prediction is based on laws of science, they still only remain inductively probable. As David Hume pointed out, scientific laws are merely inductive generalisations based on what has happened in the past.

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